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Azoospermia and IVF

Azospermia, which means no sperm in men's semen, is no longer so frightening with treatment methods developed in recent years. However, there is no 100% success in the treatment of azoospermia. The presence of very few sperm in the semen is called heavy oligospermia. In this case, sperm transfer to the egg by microinjection method is possible. However, in azoospermia the solution is more difficult because there is no sperm in the semen.
How is azoospermia diagnosed?
Separate microscopic examination of at least two semen is essential for the diagnosis of azoospermia.
These criteria, set by the World Health Organization, must be microscopically examined in the semen for the diagnosis of azoospermia. The problem in this disease is mostly due to the lack of mature sperm production in the testes, even though the sperm channels are open. This may be due to defects in the testicular inner tissue or problems in the pituitary gland that secrete hormones responsible for sperm cell production.
How is sperm obtained in case of azoospermia?
Mature sperm production occurs in the majority of patients with azoospermia but cannot be discarded with the help of channels. Physical examination and laboratory tests are applied to the patients diagnosed with azoospermia. The presence of vas deferens ducts, which carry sperm, should be demonstrated by physical examination. Since the development of these channels is parallel to the development of the kidney, the kidneys are checked for diagnosis.

It was also observed that the formation of these channels may not occur in cystic fibrous patients. In such patients, sperm can be obtained by various methods. These methods are PESA, TESA and TESE.
Testicles if it is smaller than normal, it may also be the cause of the problem. When such a physical diagnosis is made, the hormonal structure should be checked first. Since this condition can be seen together with chromosomal defects, genetic research is also useful. It should be checked whether it is encountered in the family's close relatives. Hormonal system problems may also be the cause.

Defects in the hypothalamus and pituitary glands and tumor formation in these glands may also be among the causes. If the sperm ducts and testis size are normal, the amount of semen and FSH should be measured. FSH is a stimulating hormone produced by the pituitary gland that promotes sperm development. If the amount of FSH is twice the normal, it can be understood that the source of the problem is sperm production. In this case, biopsy is performed to diagnose azoospermia.

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