It is to ensure fertilization by taking the eggs of the woman and the sperm of the man out of the body and bringing them together under laboratory conditions. Here, the processing done outside this body is called IVF (in vitro fertilization) or in vitro fertilization.
This method, which was developed in the early 1970s for women who had closed uterine canals to have children, gained popularity with the birth of the first in vitro fertilization Louise Brown in 1978. It is the first method to be used and therefore is the most popular among infertility treatments.
Stages of IVF Treatment
The goal of IVF treatments is to develop multiple follicles and maximize the chance of collecting several eggs in the same menstrual cycle.
IVF Ovulation Induction; Ovulation induction (pre- treatment with the needles to be used in the short or long protocol) is tried to create a large amount of egg cells. The follicles formed are monitored by ultrasound every 3-4 days and are expected to reach the appropriate size. In the meantime, the measured E2 and LH levels and the response of the ovaries to the treatment are evaluated. Once the follicles reach the desired maturity, the day of egg collection (OPU) is decided. Egg collection is performed under the guidance of vaginal ultrasound under general anesthesia. Egg collection requires at least 6 hours of fasting and is preferred in the morning. After egg collection, the patient leaves after resting for 2 hours in our center.
Following egg collection (OPU), the collected oocytes (egg cells) are first treated and washed and debris removed. Mature eggs are selected and prepared for ICSI. In the meantime, sperm from the spouse is prepared by passing through some special washing process. The sperm is taken into the micropipette and a single sperm is injected into the oocyte held by another pipette. This process is repeated for each oocyte-sperm pair. After the injection, it is put into the incubator at special temperature and carbon dioxide concentration in special sera and fertilization rates and development quality are monitored periodically.
Following embryo development, the best quality embryos are selected on day 3 or day 5 and prepared for transfer.
IVF Embryo Transfer During embryo transfer, the patient is hospitalized in the gynecological examination position. After the speculum is inserted into the vagina, sterile saline is cleaned. Then the cervix is cleaned with special culture fluids. The embryologist brings the embryos to be transferred from the laboratory in the catheter. The physician will perform the procedure and leave the embryos into the uterus under ultrasound guidance from the abdomen. Embryo transfer is not painful and does not require anesthesia.
After the procedure, the patient is given hormone medications in the form of injections, suppositories or creams to support the endometrium. This treatment, called luteal phase support, continues until the 10th week, if pregnancy occurs. In cases where pregnancy does not occur and menstrual bleeding, treatment drug support is discontinued with the onset of bleeding.
On the 12th day after embryo transfer, the patient is informed about the central outcome by having a pregnancy test.